Handbook of Research on Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers

Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers are underrepresented in public schools across America, yet research over decades has indicated their positive impact on students. A first-of-its-kind research handbook, addresses key issues and obstacles to ethnoracial diversity in the teaching ranks such as recruitment and retention, professional development, and the role of minority-serving institutions. The AERA (American Educational Research Association) Handbook of Research on Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers — co-edited by University of Houston Associate Professor Conra Gist and University of California, Berkeley Assistant Professor Travis Bristol — is designed to be an important resource for scholars, practitioners, and policymakers and a launching pad for discussion and change.

Learn more about the handbook

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Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers are underrepresented in public schools across America, yet research over decades has indicated their positive impact on students. A first-of-its-kind research handbook, addresses key issues and obstacles to ethnoracial diversity in the teaching ranks such as recruitment and retention, professional development, and the role of minority-serving institutions. The AERA (American Educational Research Association) Handbook of Research on Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers — co-edited by University of Houston Associate Professor Conra Gist and University of California, Berkeley Assistant Professor Travis Bristol — is designed to be an important resource for scholars, practitioners, and policymakers and a launching pad for discussion and change.

Learn more about the handbook

Order handbook now

Overview of Handbook Chapters

Opening Chapters

Charting the Landscape of Research on Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers in the United States by Conra Gist and Travis J. Bristol

Conra D. Gist
Email: cdgist@central.uh.edu
Affiliation: University of Houston
University of Houston

Dr. Conra D. Gist is an associate professor of teaching and teacher education in the College of Education at the University of Houston. Her research focuses on understanding the various types of programs, policies and practices that support the development and advancement of Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers in education systems.

Dr. Travis J. Bristol
Affiliation: University of California, Berkeley’s School of Education

Travis J. Bristol is an associate professor of teacher education and education policy at the University of California, Berkeley’s School of Education. Before joining Berkeley’s faculty, he was a Peter Paul Assistant Professor at Boston University. Dr. Bristol’s research is situated at the intersection of educational policy and teacher education. Using qualitative methods, he explores three related research strands: (1) the role of educational policies in shaping teacher workplace experiences and retention; (2) district and school-based professional learning communities; (3) the role of race and gender in educational settings. Dr. Bristol’s research has appeared in peer-reviewed journals including Urban Education, the American Educational Research Journal, the Journal of Teacher Education, Teachers College Record, and Harvard Educational Review. He is currently co-editing (with Conra Gist) The Handbook of Research on Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers, which will be published by the American Educational Research Association (AERA).

The National Academy of Education/Spencer Foundation, Ford Foundation, and AERA awarded Dr. Bristol dissertation fellowships in 2013. In 2016, he received the inaugural teacher diversity research award from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. In 2019, Dr. Bristol received a Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship and an emerging scholar award from the Comparative and International Education Society, African Diaspora SIG. In 2020, he received a National Academy of Education/Spencer Postdoctoral Fellowship. In 2021, Dr. Bristol received the Early Career Award from AERA (Division-K). More recently, in 2022 he received an AERA Outstanding Reviewer (Educational Researcher) Award.

Dr. Bristol is on the editorial boards of Urban Education and the American Educational Research Journal. He is also the chair of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Board of Directors and chairs the California Department of Education Teacher Diversity Advisory Group. Dr. Bristol is on the Board of Directors of Teach Plus; the National Center for Teacher Residencies; and the Albert Shanker Institute.

He is a former student and teacher in New York City public schools and teacher educator with the Boston Teacher Residency program. Dr. Bristol received his A.B. from Amherst College; an M.A. from Stanford University; and a Ph.D. from Teachers College, Columbia University.


Executive Summary: A Research Agenda for Strengthening Educator Ethnoracial Diversity in the United States
by Conra Gist

History of Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers
by Elizabeth Todd Breland

Dr. Elizabeth Todd-Breland
Affiliation: University of Illinois at Chicago


The Struggles and Triumphs of Indigenous Teacher Education in Canada and the United States
by Jo-ann Archibald querimony Q’um Xiiem and Jeremy Garcia Tuukwa

Dr. Jo-ann Archibald Q’um Q’um Xiiem
Affiliation: University of British Colombia

Dr. Jeremy Garcia
Email: garciaj3@arizona.edu
Affiliation: University of Arizona

Ethnoracially Diverse Teachers in Europe: A Research Brief
by Travis J. Bristol and Makaela E. Jones

Makaela E. Jones
Affiliation: University of California at Berkeley


What We Know and Need to Know
by Margarita Bianco and Ramon Goings

Dr. Margarita Bianco
Email: margarita.bianco@ucdenver.edu
Affiliation: University of Colorado Denver

Dr. Margarita Bianco is an associate professor in the School of Education and Human Development at the University of Colorado Denver and Founder of Pathways2Teaching. Her research interests include strategies to recruit and retain teachers of color and developing Grow Your Own (GYO) teacher programs for high school students of color in urban and rural communities. Dr. Bianco’s work has been widely published in leading educational journals and books. She is also the recipient of multiple awards including the CU Denver’s Rosa Parks Diversity Award, University of Colorado President’s Diversity Award, CU’s 2012 Teaching Excellence Award, and was named the University’s Timmerhaus Teaching Ambassador (2017-2019). Professor Bianco was also recognized by Diverse: Issues in Higher Education as one of the nation’s top 35 women in higher education and most recently she was the recipient of the 2020 DTW / AACTE Research on Teacher Diversity Award.


Dr. Ramon Goings
Email: rgoings@umbc.edu
Affiliation: University of Maryland, Baltimore County

A native of Stamford, Connecticut Dr. Ramon Goings is an Associate Professor in the Language, Literacy, and Culture interdisciplinary doctoral program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County and founder of Done Dissertation® a dissertation consulting organization that helps doctoral students, doctoral programs, and graduate student organizations break down the dissertation process into manageable pieces so that doctoral students can finish their dissertations in one year (or less). Author of over 60 scholarly publications, Dr. Goings is an expert on gifted/high-achieving Black male student success in PK-20 settings and diversifying the teacher and school leader workforce. In addition to his scholarship, Dr. Goings has expertise in cultivating the academic writing of doctoral students and early career researchers. For more information about Dr. Goings’ research, you can visit www.ramongoings.com and for more information about Done Dissertation® you can visit www.thedonedissertation.com www.ramongoings.com

A Teacher Action Research Study on Critical Hope in a Teacher Pipeline Program for Minoritized Youth
by Van T. Lac

Dr. Van T. Lac
Email: van.lac@utsa.edu
Affiliation: University of Texas-San Antonio

Critical Pedagogy in a GYO Program: Identity, Sociopolitical Development, and Transformational Resistance in Latinx Students’ Aspirations to Teach
by Brian A. Lightfoot and Terrenda C. White

Brian A. Lightfoot
Email: brian.lightfoot@colorado.edu
Affiliation: University of Colorado Boulder

Dr. Terrenda C. White
Email: Terrenda.White@colorado.edu
Affiliation: University of Colorado

“A Place Where People Care” Revisited: A Retrospective and Vision on Recruiting and Retaining Teachers of Color
by Jennifer J. Robinson and Carolina E. Gonzalez

Dr. Jennifer Robinson
Email: robinsonj@montclair.edu
Affiliation: Montclair State University

Carolina E. Gonzalez
Email: gonzalezca@montclair.edu
Affiliation: Montclair State University

Transnational Feminist Understandings of the Neoliberal Recruitment of International Women Teachers of Color
by Kimberly Williams Brown, Makini Beck, and Christine Nganga

Dr. Kimberly Williams Brown
Email: kwilliamsbrown@vassar.edu
Affiliation: Vassar College

Dr. Makini Beck
Email: Mzbind@rit.edu
Affiliation: Rochester Institute of Technology

Dr. Christine Nganga
Email: ngangac@gwu.edu
Affiliation: The George Washington University

STEM Siren Songs: A Conceptual Framework of the Differential Racialization of Preservice STEM Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers
by Vincent Basile and Ricki Ginsberg

Dr. Vincent Basile
Email: vincent.basile@colostate.edu
Affiliation: Colorado State University

Dr. Ricki Ginsberg
Email: ricki.ginsberg@colostate.edu
Affiliation: Colorado State University

Recruiting Teachers of Color in STEM for High-Need Schools: Lessons Learned From the Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program
by Jamaal Young, Alana Tholen, Nickolaus A. Ortiz, Willie C. Harmon Jr., and Marlon C. James

Dr. Jamaal, Young
Email: Jamaal.young@tamu.edu
Affiliation: Texas A&M University

Dr. Alana Tholen
Affiliation: University of Iowa

Dr. Nickolaus A. Ortiz
Email: nortiz1@gsu.edu
Affiliation: Georgia State University

Dr. Willie C. Harmon Jr
Email: wcharmonjr@tamu.edu
Affiliation: Texas A&M University

Dr. Marlon C. James
Email: mjames1@tamu.edu
Affiliation: Texas A&M University

Program design

Section Introduction: Programmatic Views in Educating Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers
by Thomas Philip and Felicia Moore Mensah

Dr. Thomas Philip
Email: tmp@berkeley.edu
Affiliation: University of California at Berkeley

Dr. Felicia Mensah
Affiliation: Teachers College, Columbia University

Felicia Moore Mensah, PhD (@docmensah | she, her) is the Department Chair of Mathematics, Science, and Technology; Professor of Science Education; and Program Director of the science education program at Teachers College, Columbia University (New York City). Her work addresses issues of diversity, equity, and identity in science teacher education. Her most recent research utilizes critical race theory, racial literacy, and intersectionality to transform teacher education research and practice. Her focus on preparing future teacher educators and teacher educators of color for racial literacy combines years of teaching, mentoring, and outreach in PreK12 schools and postsecondary education. Dr. Mensah was the recipient of the 2017 Outstanding Science Teacher Educator of the Year (ASTE); the 2012 Early Career Award, Division K Teaching and Teacher Education (AERA); and an Equity and Ethics Scholar in 2005 (NARST). She is the author of “Like Words Falling onto the Page: Demystifying the Academic Writing and Publishing Process.”


The Experiences and Preparation of Teacher Candidates of Color: A Literature Review by Laura C. Chavez-Moreno, Ana Maria Villegas, and Marilyn Cochran-Smith

Professor Laura C. Chávez-Moreno
Email: ChavezMoreno@ucla.edu
Affiliation: University of California Los Angeles

Dr. Ana Maria Villegas
Email: villegasa@mail.montclair.edu
Affiliation: Montclair State University

Professor Marilyn Cochran-Smith
Email: cochrans@bc.edu
Affiliation: Lynch School of Education and Human Development

Educating Future Teacher Educators of Color to Talk About Race in Teacher Education by Felicia Moore Mensah

Students of Color as Architects of Future Designs for Teacher Education and Research
by Marcelle Haddix and Kimberly Williams Brown

Dr. Marcelle Haddix
Email: mhaddix@syr.edu
Affiliation: Syracuse University

Ethnic Studies in Teacher Education: A Transformative Programmatic Approach to Centering the Experiences of Teacher Candidates of Color
by Darlene Lee and Josephine H. Pham

Darlene Lee
Email: dalee@gseis.ucla.edu
Affiliation: University of California, Los Angeles

Dr. Josephine H. Pham
Email: jpham44@ucsc.edu
Affiliation: University of California, Santa Cruz

Professional Development

Section Introduction: Professional Development for and by Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers
by Rita Kohli

Dr. Rita Kohli
Email: rita.kohli@ucr.edu
Affiliation: University of California, Riverside

A Critical Race Inquiry Approach to the Professional Development of Elementary School Teachers of Color
by Wanda Watson and Natalee Kēhaulani Bauer

Dr. Wanda Watson
Email: wanda.watson@sjsu.edu
Affiliation: San Jose State University

Dr. Natalee Kehaulani Bauer
Email: N.bauer@northeastern.edu
Affiliation: Mills College

How Black Teachers Use Professional Development to Resist Oppression and Move Toward Liberation by Belinda Bellinger and Micia Mosely

Dr. Belinda Bellinger
Email: belindabellinger@gmail.com
Affiliation: Black Teacher Project | Bay Area Parent Leadership Action Network

Dr. Micia Mosely
Affiliation: National Equity Project

Beyond the Technical: Critical Professional Development Supporting the Holistic Needs of Teachers of Color
by Rita Kohli, Rebeca Burciaga, and Marcos Pizarro

Dr. Rebeca Burciaga
Email: rebeca.burciaga@sjsu.edu
Affiliation: San José State University

Dr. Marcos Pizarro
Email: marcos.pizarro@sjsu.edu
Affiliation: San Jose State University

Centering Indigenous Land Education in Teacher Professional Development
by Anna Lees, Cynthia Wilson, Renee Swan-Waite, and Dolores Calderon

Dr. Anna Lees
Email: anna.lees@wwu.edu
Affiliation: Western Washington University

Dr. Cynthia Wilson
Email: clwilson@fau.edu
Affiliation: Florida Atlantic University

Renee Swan-Waite
Affiliation: Lummi Indian Business Council

Dr. Dolores Calderon
Email: dolores.calderon@wwu.edu
Affiliation: Fairhaven College


Diversifying the Teaching Profession: Issues in Recruiting and Retaining Teachers of Color
by Desiree Carver-Thomas, Maria E. Hyler, and Linda Darling-Hammond

Desiree Carver-Thomas
Affiliation: Learning Policy Institute

Maria E. Hyler
Affiliation: Learning Policy Institute

Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond
Email: lindadh@suse.stanford.edu
Affiliation: Stanford Graduate School of Education/Learning Policy Institute

Trends in the Recruitment, Employment, and Retention of Teachers From Underrepresented Racial-Ethnic Groups
by Richard Ingersoll, Henry May, Gregory Collins, and Tina Fletcher

Professor Richard Ingersoll
Email: rmi@upenn.edu
Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania

Henry May
Email: hmay@udel.edu
Affiliation: University of Delaware

Dr. Gregory Collins
Email: gcollins@gse.upenn.edu
Affiliation: Consortium for Policy Research in Education

Dr. Tina Fletcher
Email: tfletch@upenn.edu
Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania

Money Matters: A Review of Incentive Policies for Recruiting and Retaining Teachers of Color
by Andrene J. Castro

Dr. Andrene Castro
Email: castroa2@vcu.edu
Affiliation: Virginia Commonwealth University

The Trajectory of the Invisible Teacher: Latinx Teachers in Search of Professional Belonging
by Socorro G. Herrera, Kevin G. Murry, and Melissa A. Holme

Dr. Kevin G. Murry
Email: xmas@k-state.edu
Affiliation: Kansas State University

Dr. Melissa Holmes
Email: melissa@ksu.edu
Affiliation: Kansas State University, Center for Intercultural & Multilingual Advocacy (CIMA)

Sustaining the Circle: Native Teacher Preparation and Retention
by Maria T. Tenorio, Micki M. Caskey, and Anna Figueira

Dr. Maria Tenorio
Email: tenorio@pdx.edu
Affiliation: Portland State University

Dr. Micki M. Caskey
Email: caskeym@pdx.edu
Affiliation: Portland State University

Dr. Anna Figueira
Email: Anna.m.figueira@gmail.com
Affiliation: Portland State University

Perspectives of Black Teachers’ Experiences in the Field and the Connection to Retention
by Ashley R. Griffin, R. Davis Dixon, and Hilary N. Tackie

Dr. Ashley R. Griffin
Affiliation: Bowie State University

Dr. R. Davis Dixon
Affiliation: Howard University

Dr. Hilary Naa-Afi Tackie
Email: hilary.tackie@gmail.com
Affiliation: Rutgers Graduate School of Education

Dr. Toya Frank
George Mason University
Handbook Chapter Contributor
Washington, DC

Dr. Jenice L. View
George Mason University
Washington DC

A Subject-Specific Approach to Understanding Black Mathematics Teacher Retention
by Toya J. Frank, Jenice L. View, Marvin Powell, Christina Lee, Asia Williams, and Jay Bradley

Dr. Marvin Powell
Email: mpowel11@gmu.edu
Affiliation: George Mason University

Dr. Christina Lee
Email: leecs@bu.edu
Affiliation: Boston University

Asia Williams
Affiliation: George Mason University

Jay A. Bradley
Affiliation: George Mason University

Pedagogical & Leadership Practices

The Pedagogical and Leadership Practices of Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers
by Dorinda J. Carter Andrews

Dr. Dorinda J. Carter Andrews
Email: dcarter@msu.edu
Affiliation: Michigan State University, Department of Teacher Education

Dorinda Carter Andrews is a professor and chairperson of the Department of Teacher Education at Michigan State University. Her research is broadly focused on Black education and racial equity and justice in P-20 learning environments. She utilizes critical racial and Black feminist/womanist frameworks and methodologies to examine issues of race, culture, and power in schools. Dr. Carter Andrews is a sought-after consultant to school districts, universities, non-profit and for-profit entities for how to develop and maintain culturally responsive, inclusive, and equitable learning and work environments. She is a former industrial engineer, high school math teacher, and kindergarten. In addition to numerous honors, Dr. Carter Andrews has given two TEDx talks on education. Her insights on racial equity in education have appeared in outlets such as the New York Times, Education Week, and on WKAR, NPR, CNN. Dr. Carter Andrews’s scholarship has also been published in several top-tier academic journals.


A Mighty Love: Culture, Community, and Liberatory Practices Among Educators of Color
by Lasana D. Kazembe

Dr. Lasana D. Kazembe
Email: lkazembe@iu.edu
Affiliation: Indiana University

When the Messenger Is the Message: Asian American Educators Explore Hybridity, Identity, and History in Elementary Classrooms
by Noreen Naseem Rodriguez

Dr. Noreen Naseem Rodríguez
Email: noreen.rodriguez@colorado.edu
Affiliation: University of Colorado Boulder

Pushing Against the Curriculum: Exercising Instructional Power as a Teacher of Color to Enact Decolonizing Pedagogy and Equitable Curriculum
by Tanji Reed Marshall

Dr. Tanji Reed Marshall
Email: treedmarshall@edtrust.org
Affiliation: Ed Trust

Migration Counterstories: Pedagogies of Possibilities
by Rosa M. Jimenez

Dr. Rosa Jimenez
Email: rmjimenez@usfca.edu
Affiliation: University of San Francisco

Disrupting Deficit Narratives of Chicagoland Barrios: Uplifting Latinx Teacher Testimonios
by Ramona Alcala, Joanna V. Maravilla, Yanelet Delgado, and P. Zitlali Morales

Dr. Ramona Alcalá
Email: ralcal3@uic.edu
Affiliation: University of Illinois at Chicago

Dr. Joanna V. Maravilla
Email: jmaravillacano@lewisu.edu
Affiliation: Department of Education – Lewis University

Dr. Yanelet Delgado
Email: ydelga3@uic.edu
Affiliation: University of Illinois Chicago

Dr. P. Zitlali Morales
Email: zitlali@uic.edu
Affiliation: University of Illinois Chicago

“You Have to Know Their World”: Somali Teacher Epistemologies in Framing Culturally Responsive School Leadership
by Nimo M. Abdi, Stefanie Marshall, and Muhammad Khalifa

Dr. Nimo Abdi
Email: abdi.4@osu.edu
Affiliation: The Ohio State University

Dr. Stefanie, Marshall
Email: slmarsh@umn.edu
Affiliation: University of Minnesota

Dr. Muhammad Khalifa
Email: khalifa.20@osu.edu
Affiliation: The Ohio State University


Critical Mentorship: Centering Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers’ Experiences and Deconstructing Power Relationships by Belinda Bustos Flores, Socorro G. Herrera, and Lorena Claeys

Dr. Belinda Bustos Flores
Email: belinda.flores@utsa.edu
Affiliation: University of Texas at San Antonio

Belinda Bustos Flores is an Associate Dean of Strategic Partnerships, Preparation, & Growth and Professor, Department of Bicultural-Bilingual Studies, College of Education and Human Development at the University of Texas at San Antonio. Dr. Flores is the founder of the nationally recognized, award-winning Academy for Teacher Excellence Research Center at UTSA. She has secured nearly 30 million dollars in external funding. In addition, she has published numerous articles and books in the area of teacher education. Dr. Flores’ research focuses on teacher personal and professional identity and beliefs. Dr. Flores has been recognized for her work by various organizations: San Antonio Women’s Hall of Fame, Texas Association for Bilingual Education, 2015 AERA Hispanic Research Issues SIG Elementary, Secondary, and Postsecondary Award, and 2019 AERA Bilingual Research SIG Lifetime Achievement Award.”

Professor Socorro Herrera
Email: sococo@ksu.edu
Affiliation: Kansas State University

Dr. Socorro Herrera is professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education at Kansas State University and Executive Director of the Center for Intercultural and Multilingual Advocacy (CIMA). Her research focuses the role that personal histories of the learner, family, and teacher play in literacy development and culturally responsive, sustaining pedagogy; reading strategies; and TOCs navigating educational spaces. She has authored 10 textbooks and numerous articles in journals such as the Journal of Hispanic Higher Education and Journal of Latinos and Education.”

Dr. Lorena Claeys
Email: lorena.claeys@utsa.edu
Affiliation: The University of Texas at San Antonio

What Exists and “What I Need ”: In Search of Critical, Empowering, and Race-Conscious Approaches to Mentoring From the Perspective of Latina/o/x Teachers
by Amanda R. Morales, Pedro Silva Espinoza, and Kristin Bunker Duke

Dr. Amanda R. Morales
Email: amanda.morales@unl.edu
Affiliation: University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dr. Pedro Silva Espinoza
Email: rfranzen@ksu.edu
Affiliation: Kansas State University

Kristin Bunker Duke

Equity Matterz: Leveraging Critical Professional Development and Critical Mentorship to Retain and Sustain Teachers of Color
by Tonya Walls

Dr. Tonya Walls
Email: tonya.walls@unlv.edu
Affiliation: University of Nevada

Transformative Vision and Practices: Preparing Culturally Efficacious Induction Mentors
by Belinda Bustos Flores and Lorena Claeys

Human Resource Development and Induction

Human Resource Development and Induction. Human Resources and Induction for Teachers of Color: An Essential Role
by Francisco A. Rios and Desiree W. Cueto

Dr. Francisco Ríos
Email: riosf@wwu.edu
Affiliation: Western Washington University

Francisco A. Rios is an Emeritus Professor and Former Dean of the Woodring College of Education at Western Washington University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin and worked at California State University San Marcos and the University of Wyoming before arriving in Washington. Francisco’s research interests include teachers of color, Latinos in education, and preservice teacher education with a multicultural focus. Francisco served as the Senior Associate Editor of Multicultural Perspectives, the Journal of the National Association for Multicultural Education. Francisco served as President of the National Association for Multicultural Education from 2014-2016. His most recent publication is titled “”Creating a Home in Schools: Sustaining Identities for Black, Indigenous, and Teachers of Color”” (Teachers College Press, 2021), co-authored with A Longoria.”

Dr. Desiree W. Cueto
Email: dwcueto@arizona.edu
Affiliation: University of Arizona

Desirée W. Cueto is an African American associate professor in Teaching, Learning and Sociocultural Studies at the University of Arizona. Her research consists of three major strands of scholarship related to a) Black perspectives and epistemologies as a frame for critical analysis of children’s and young adult literature; b) collaborative inquiries that support preservice and in-service teachers in using diverse books to help children think in new ways about their lives and world; and c) the responses and interpretations of youth from historically resilient communities to critical literacy engagements. As a former teacher and district administrator, she is deeply committed to supporting and increasing the number of BIPOC and Indigenous teachers in public school classrooms. She is co-author of Essentials of Children’s Literature 10th Edition, and has published in the Journal of Literacy Research, Research in the Teaching of English and the Journal of Children’s Literature among others.


A District’s Dual Needs: Bilingual Teachers Who “Look Like Our Students”
by Pauline Williams and Elizabeth A. Skinner

Dr. Pauline Williams
Email: pwilli5@ilstu.edu
Affiliation: Illinois State University

Dr. Elizabeth Skinner
Email: eskinne@ilstu.edu
Affiliation: Illinois State University

Is Racial Congruence Between Teachers and Students Enough? Skewed Workplace Compositions and Early Career African American Teachers’ Perceptions of Institutional Culture
by Erikca Brown

Dr. Erikca Brown
Email: drerikcabrown@gmail.com
Affiliation: Equity Continuum

Voice and Visibility: Implications of Induction Programming for Teachers of Color in a Rural Mississippi District
by LaRenda Janee’ Harrison

Dr. LaRenda Janee’ Harrison
Affiliation: Belhaven University

Latinx Teachers: Pl.ticas and Possibilities
by Maria E. Franquiz and Cinthia S. Salinas

Dr. Maria E. Franquiz
Email: maria.franquiz@austin.utexas.edu
Affiliation: University of Texas at Austin

Dr. Cinthia S. Salinas
Email: cssalinas@austin.utexas.edu
Affiliation: University of Texas at Austin



Intersectional Cartographies: Tracing the Contours of the Margins
by Boni Wozolek, Jason G. Irizarry, and Ed Brockenbrough

Dr. Boni Wozolek
Email: bfw5188@psu.edu
Affiliation: Pennsylvania State University, Abington College

Dr. Wozolek is an Assistant Professor at Penn State Abington. Her work examines race, sexual orientations, and gender identities through qualitative research methods and teaching practices across educational contexts. Dr. Wozolek’s recent publications include her monograph, Assemblages of Violence in Education: Everyday Trajectories of Oppression (Routledge, 2021) and an edited volume, Black Lives Matter in US Schools: Race, Education, and Resistance (SUNY, 2022). Dr. Wozolek is most recently the recipient of the 2020 “Best Paper Award” from Educational Studies: A Journal of the American Educational Studies Association, the 2021 Early Career Award from the Critical Issues in Curriculum and Cultural Studies special interest group of the American Educational Research Association.

Dr. Jason G. Irizarry
Email: jason.irizarry@uconn.edu
Affiliation: University of Connecticut

Dr. Jason G. Irizarry is the Dean of the Neag School of Education and Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Connecticut. A central focus of his work involves promoting the academic achievement of youth in urban schools by addressing issues associated with educator preparation. His research focuses on urban teacher recruitment, preparation, and retention with an emphasis on increasing the number of teachers of color, culturally responsive pedagogy, youth participatory action research, and Latinx students in U.S. schools. He is the author of the award-winning book, The Latinization of U.S. Schools: Successful Teaching and Learning in Shifting Cultural Contexts.

Dr. Ed Brockenbrough
Email: edbrocke@upenn.edu
Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania

Ed Brockenbrough is an associate professor and the inaugural Calvin Bland Fellow at the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Education in Philadelphia, PA, where he teaches courses on diversity and social justice issues in education. His research focuses on identity, pedagogy, and power in urban educational spaces, particularly through the lenses of Black masculinity studies and queer of color critique. Dr. Brockenbrough is currently preparing his second sole-authored book titled Learning While Black and Queer, featuring previously unpublished works on Black queer educational tensions and pedagogical disruptions. His first book, Black Men Teaching in Urban Schools: Reassessing Masculinity, was published by Routledge in 2018 and is available for free download at https://bit.ly/BrockBMT2018.

“I Basically Just Walked Out”: Race Talk and the Experiences of Black Women Educators in U.S. Educational Settings
by Tanja Burkhard, Valerie Kinloch, DaVonna Graham, and Kaye-Ann Yarborough

Dr. Tanja Burkhard
Email: tanja.bukhard@wsu.edu
Affiliation: Washington State University

Dr. Valerie Kinloch
Email: vkinloch@pitt.edu
Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh

Dr. DaVonna Graham
Email: dlg76@pitt.edu
Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh

Dr. Kaye-Ann Yarborough
Affiliation: Walden University

Intersectionally Developing Community and Solidarity Through a Queer Studies in EducationClass at an Urban Hispanic-Serving Institution by Alison Matthews, Jose Corado, and Andrew Gutierrez III

Dr. Allison Mattheis
Email: amatthe5@calstatela.edu
Affiliation: California State University

Dr. Jose Corado
Affiliation: California State University

Andrew Gutierrez III
Email: andrewg@safeplaceforyouth.org
Affiliation: Safe Place for Youth

Dismantling the “Wall of Whiteness”: How Teacher Education Simultaneously Pursues Diversity and Reinscribes Whiteness
by Grace D. Player and Jason G. Irizarry

Dr. Grace D. Player
Email: grace.player@uconn.edu
Affiliation: University of Connecticut, Neag School of Education

Engaging Intersectional Praxes: A Catalyst for Critical Collective Vulnerability and Liberatory
by Farima Pour-Khorshid, Oscar Navarro, Tiffany M. Nyachae, and Josephine H. Pham

Dr. Farima Pour-Khorshid
Email: ms.farima@gmail.com
Affiliation: University of San Francisco

Dr. Oscar Navarro
Email: oscar.navarro@csulb.edu
Affiliation: California State University, Long Beach

Tiffany M. Nyachae
Email: tmn5327@psu.edu
Affiliation: Penn State College of Education

Marginalized by Intersectionality: Teachers and Scholars of Color Participating in Assemblages of Violence
by Boni Wozolek

Educational Impact

The Value of Teachers of Color
by Donald by Easton-Brooks, James Martinez, and Jemimah L. Young

Dr. Donald Easton-Brooks
Email: deastonbrooks@unr.edu
Affiliation: University of Nevada

Dr. James Martinez
Email: jammartinez@valdosta.edu
Affiliation: Valdosta State University

Dr. James Martínez is a professor and program coordinator in the department of Teacher Education at Valdosta State University. James was a teacher and sports coach for over a decade in rural, inner-city, and urban profile public schools. Dr. Martínez is a supervisor of student teachers and teaches undergraduate classes related to classroom management and differentiated multicultural education instruction, and graduate courses addressing critical pedagogy, racial/ethnic inequality, equity literacy, educational law, and research methodology. Dr. Martínez is an Associate Editor for The Urban Review and has published articles and reviews focused upon critical race studies and Latinx education, schooling in urban and rural education, with a particular emphasis on middle grades education, youth gang risk factors, education innovation, and immigration reform. James enjoys to travel with his family, play basketball, and attend professional sports events.

Dr. Jemimah L. Young
Email: dr.jmyoung@gmail.com
Affiliation: Texas A&M University

The Impact of Teachers of Color on School Belonging: A Conceptual Framework
by Jemimah L. Young and Donald Easton-Brooks

Seeing Color: Re-storying Contexts and Components of Impactful Teachers of Color
by Derrick Robinson

Dr. Derrick Robinson
Email: drbnsn28@memphis.edu
Affiliation: University of Memphis

Defying the Odds: A Critical Duoethnography of Two Female Science Educators of Color
by Regina L. Suriel and Tonjua B. Freeman

Dr. Regina L. Suriel
Email: rlsuriel@valdosta.edu
Affiliation: Valdosta State University

Dr. Tonjua B. Freeman
Email: tbf1908@gmail.com
Affiliation: Personality Matters, Inc.

Step Into My World: A Pedagogy of Black Male Caring
by Chrystal S. Johnson and Jennifer Sdunzik

Dr. Chrystal S. Johnson
Email: johnsocs@purdue.edu
Affiliation: Purdue University

Dr. Jennifer Sdunzik
Email: jsdunzik@purdue.edu
Affiliation: Purdue University

Teachers of Color as Our Nation’s Greatest Solvency: Maximizing Our Students’ Potential With Our Influence, Relationality, and a Lens of Care
by Natalie L. Parker-Holliman and Florentia Spires

Dr. Natalie Parker-Holliman
Email: NatalieHollimanPhD@gmail.com
Affiliation: Texas Tech University

Dr. Florentia Spires
Email: florentia.spires@gmail.com
Affiliation: Texas Tech University


Section Introduction: Policy. Education Policy and Teachers of Color: History, Critiques, and Future Possibilities
by Anthony L. Brown and Keffrelyn D. Brown

Dr. Anthony L. Brown
Email: alb@austin.utexas.edu
Affiliation: The University of Texas at Austin College of Education

Dr. Keffrelyn D. Brown
Email: keffrelyn@austin.utexas.edu
Affiliation: The University of Texas at Austin College of Education

In Search of Black Teachers: The Irony of Recruitment and Hiring Policies Post-Brown
by Diana D’Amico Pawlewicz, Sonya Douglass, and Andrea Guiden Pittman

Dr. Diana D’Amico Pawlewicz
Email: Diana.Pawlewicz@UND.edu
Affiliation: University of North Dakota

Dr. Sonya Douglass
Email: sdh2150@tc.columbia.edu
Affiliation: Columbia University

Dr. Andrea Guiden Pittman
Email: Aguiden2@gmu.edu
Affiliation: American University

The Absence and Probability of Effective Public Policies for Teacher Diversity
by Mary E. Dilworth

Dr. Mary E. Dilworth
Email: westsecond@gmail.com
Affiliation: Westsecond LLC

Policy Risks and Opportunities in Attracting Millennials of Color Into the Teaching Profession
by Michael Hansen and Diana Quintero

Dr. Michael Hansen
Affiliation: Brookings Institution

Dr. Diana Quintero
Email: diana.c.quintero.castellanos@vanderbilt.edu
Affiliation: Vanderbilt University

“That Test Is Stopping Me From Becoming a Teacher!” Emotions, Teacher Licensure Testing, and Latina/o Teacher Candidates by Yukari Takimoto Amos

Dr. Yukari Takimoto Amos
Email: yukari.amos@cwu.edu
Affiliation: Central Washington University

Plugging the Leaks: Washington’s Policy Approach to Strengthening the Latinx Teacher Pipeline
by Amaya Garcia, Jenny Muñiz and Roxanne Garza

Amaya Garcia
Email: garciaa@newamerica.org
Affiliation: New America, Education Policy Program

Jenny Muyiz
Affiliation: New America, Education Policy Program

Roxanne Garza
Affiliation: Unidos US

Planting Toxic Seeds in Fertile Soil: The Knowledge Acquisition, Achievement, and Behavioral Beliefs Inculcated Into Teach For America Corps Members of Color
by Amber Kim, T. Jameson Brewer, and Julian Vasquez Heilig

Dr. Amber Kim
Email: amberkkim@gmail.com
Affiliation: Amber Kim Consulting

Dr. T. Jameson Brewer
Email: Jameson.Brewer@ung.edu
Affiliation: University of North Georgia

Dr. Julian Vasquez Heilig
Email: jvh@alumni.Stanford.edu
Affiliation: University of Kentucky

Minority-Serving Institutions

Minority-Serving Institutions. The Role of Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic-Serving Institutions, Tribal Colleges and Universities, and Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander–Serving Institutions in the Production of Teachers of Color
by Leslie T. Fenwick and Chike Akua

Dr. Leslie T. Fenwick
Email: lfenwick@Howard.edu
Affiliation: Howard University

Dr. Chike Akua
Email: cakua@cau.edu
Affiliation: Clark Atlanta University

Chike Akua, PhD, is an assistant professor of Educational Leadership at Clark Atlanta University. Dr. Akua’s research interests include Afrocentric Education, Afrocentric Educational Leadership and issues of culture, achievement, curriculum, equity and accountability. His books, Education for Transformation: The Keys to Releasing the Genius of African American Students (2012) and Honoring Our Ancestral Obligations: 7 Steps to Black Student Success (2015) are used in a number of colleges, universities and urban school districts for professional development.”


What’s Under the Hood? Networks, Hierarchy, and Rhythms That Support Preservice Teachers of Color at Minority-Serving Institutions
by Emery Marc Petchauer and Lynnette Mawhinney

Professor Emery Petchauer
Email: petchau1@msu.edu
Affiliation: Michigan State University

Dr. Lynnette Mawhinney
Email: lynnette.mawhinney@rutgers.edu
Affiliation: Rutgers University-Newark

Pathways Into the Teaching Profession for African American Science and Mathematics Graduates From Historically Black Colleges and Universities
by Kimberley Edelin Freeman, Cynthia Winston-Proctor, and Oral B. Grant

Dr. Kimberley Freeman
Email: kefreeman@howard.edu
Affiliation: Howard University

Dr. Cynthia Winston-Proctor
Email: cewinston@Howard.edu
Affiliation: Howard University

Dr. Oral B. Grant
Affiliation: Prince George’s Community College

Toward Recognizing and Leveraging Latinx Teacher Candidates’ Community Cultural Wealth
by Diane Mendoza Nevarez

Dr. Diane Mendoza Nevárez
Email: dnevarez2@csustan.edu
Affiliation: Stanislaus State University

You Belong Here
by Govinda Budrow

Dr. Govinda Budrow
Email: govinda.budrow@fdltcc.edu
Affiliation: Fond du Lac Tribal and Community College

The Role of HSIs in Cultivating a Critical Mass of Latinx Teachers and Teachers of Color: The Case of California
by Maria Oropeza Fujimoto, Frances Contreras, and Agustin Cervantes

Dr. Maria Oropeza Fujimoto
Email: moropez6@calstatela.edu
Affiliation: California State University, Los Angeles

Dr. Frances Contreras
Email: frances.contreras@uci.edu
Affiliation: University of California, Irvine School of Education

Dr. Agustin Cervantes
Email: Acerva47@calstatela.edu
Affiliation: California State University

Growing and Nurturing Future Latinx Teachers in Two of California’s Hispanic-Serving Institutions
by Luz Yadira Herrera, Ana K. Soltero Lopez, Patricia D. Lopez, Laura Alamillo, Jana Noel, Jose Cintron, Margarita Berta Avila, Karina Figueroa-Ramirez, and Dale Allender

Dr. Luz Yadira Herrera
Email: luz.herrera@csuci.edu
Affiliation: California State University Channel Islands

Dr. Ana K. Soltero López
Email: asolterolopez@mail.fresnostate.edu
Affiliation: California State University, Fresno

Dr. Patricia D. López
Email: pdlopez@csufresno.edu
Affiliation: California State University, Fresno

Dr. Patricia D. López is a first-generation college student, artivist and educator-scholar born and raised in CA’s Central Valley. Her research examines sociocultural and sociopolitical aspects of policy and practice. Dr. López has undergraduate degrees in Social Psychology and Latinx/Latin American Studies from UC Santa Cruz and master’s and doctoral degrees in Education Policy & Planning and Mexican Amer/Latinx Studies from UT Austin. Dr. López is Associate Professor and Director of Enseñamos en el Valle Central at Fresno State, organizing pathway collaborations for ethno racial communities.


Dr. Laura Alamillo
Email: alamillol@sonoma.edu
Affiliation: Sonoma State University

Dr. Jana Noel
Email: noelj@csus.edu
Affiliation: Sacramento State University

Dr. Jose Cintron
Email: cintron@csus.edu
Affiliation: California State University, Santa Barbara

Dr. Margarita Berta-Avila
Email: bamargie@csus.edu
Affiliation: Sacramento State University

Dr. Karina Figueroa-Ramirez
Email: figueroaramirez@csus.edu
Affiliation: Sacramento State University

Dr. Dale Allender
Email: dale.allender@csus.edu
Affiliation: Sacramento State University

The Shortage of Asian American Teachers in K–12 Schools: Trends, Patterns, Causes, and Recommendations
by Xue Lan Rong, Wenyang Sun, and Huanyu Cong

Professor Xue, Rong
Email: xrong@email.unc.edu
Affiliation: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Dr. Wenyang Sun
Email: u6031405@utah.edu
Affiliation: The University of Utah

Dr. Huanyu Cong
Email: huanyuc@live.unc.edu
Affiliation: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

E-Communities: How an HBCU Research-Practice Partnerships Community Cultural Wealth Galvanized Minoritized Students’ Access to STEM Spaces
by Deena Khalil, Angel Miles Nash, Adrian Wayne Bruce, Joanna Sanchez, and Meredith Kier

Dr. Deena Khalil
Email: deena.khalil@howard.edu
Affiliation: Howard University

Dr. Angel Miles Nash
Email: angelm.nash@gmail.com
Affiliation: Chapman University

Dr. Adrian Wayne Bruce
Email: Abruce@american.edu
Affiliation: American University

Dr. Joanna Sanchez
Affiliation: University of Texas at Austin

Dr. Meredith Kier
Email: mwkier@wm.edu
Affiliation: William & Mary University


Closing Chapters

Handbook Research Agenda. Building the Evidence Base for Educational Equity: A Research Agenda for Strengthening Educator Ethnoracial Diversity in the United States
by Conra D. Gist

Handbook Policy Synthesis. Policies That Teachers of Color and Indigenous Teachers Need to Thrive in the Teaching Profession
by Jessica Cardichon, Desiree Carver-Thomas, Maria E. Hyler, and Linda. Darling-Hammond

Jessica Cardichon
Affiliation: U.S Department of Education in the Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Department

Dr. Maria E. Hyler
Affiliation: Learning Policy Institute